Contemporary Aztec (Nahua) villages vary enormously in the degree to which they continue to practice the ancient religion and follow the old gods. Next to him is his son’s wife, a grandson (the girl’s brother), and his own son. They are getting ready to go to school. Picture 1 shows Aztecs growing crops to sell with other colonies. Here are some of the many consequences of the Spanish conquest of the Aztecs and their lands. Syncretism is not unique to the Aztecs but is characteristic of all religions in the world. Yet Gibson consulted only Spanish … He was the only son of noble, though not wealthy, parents. Gordon F. Ekholm and Ignacio Bernal, eds., pp. After the Spanish conquest, the city was looted, torn down, and its materials were used to build present day Mexico City. Writers sometimes call this blended god the Sun-Christ. Each doll is composed of several paper cutouts stacked on top of each other representing maize, chile peppers, and beans among other crops. The … It is also important to remember that the Spanish conquerors did everything they could to destroy the Aztec religion, which they believed was created by the devil. Ten years after the Aztec defeat in the year 1531, she appeared to a poor Aztec man named Juan Diego and promised to watch over his people. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 20: Close-up of curing altar showing blackened images of Owl Man and Owl Man Woman with cigarettes in their mouths as a tobacco offering. the most impressive and monumental Aztec architecture was to be found. Olmec colonization in the Middle Formative, The Valley of Mexico in the Middle Formative, The earliest Maya civilization of the lowlands, Classic civilization in the Maya lowlands: Tzakol phase, Late Classic non-Maya Mesoamerica (600–900), The collapse of Classic Maya civilization, Archaeological remains of Postclassic civilization, Aztec culture to the time of the Spanish conquest, Postconquest histories of the Aztec written in Spanish, Postconquest ethnographic accounts written in Spanish and Náhuatl, Official ecclesiastical and government records, The origins and expansion of the Inca state, Civil war on the eve of the Spanish conquest. Firewood for the cooking fire is stacked to the right and some of the family clothing is hanging against the house on the left. She has come down to us as the Virgin of Guadalupe and many consider her to be the patron saint of all Mexico. Pre-Columbian Aztec society was a highly complex and stratified society that developed among the Aztecs of central Mexico in the centuries prior to the Spanish conquest of Mexico, and which was built on the cultural foundations of the larger region of Mesoamerica.Politically, the society was organized into independent city … A Codex is a painted pectoral and written history of the Aztec, both from the pre-Columbian and colonial eras. So what happened to the Aztec gods after the conquest? Traditional Papermaking and Paper Cult Figures of Mexico. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 11: A woman shows the paper image of Water Dweller that has been placed before the main altar in a water pot.  The Codex Borgia (on the left) was written before the Spanish conquest of the Mexicas. Tlaneltokilli: La espiritualidad de los nahuas chicontepecanos. Both ancient and contemporary Aztecs love to use words with more than one meaning and the name Quetzalcoatl is a good example of this practice. In the news - the gender pay gap in colonial Mexico. After a three-month siege, Spanish forces under Hernán Cortés capture Tenochtitlán, the capital of the Aztec empire. They conceive of her as a woman with long hair and a fish tail in place of her legs and she resembles a mermaid. He is believed to have a ferocious temper and lives at the bottom of the Gulf of Mexico. It is no small matter that the Mayan languages of the pre-Columbian and Contact periods have no category equivalent to our term ‘religion’ (Pharo 2007).Ideas that are generally understood to represent ‘Maya religion’ in the literature, such as gods or divine … Aztec slaves were used to maintain the agricultural area. They are much feared by people today and curing specialists spend a majority of their professional time removing them from people’s bodies and surroundings. Some apparently have disappeared completely or their identities blended with other deities so that today they are unrecognizable as separate deities. The first article is, The Pristine Myth: The Landscape of the Americas in 1492 by William M. Denevan who is a geography … The popular name of this god is Feathered Serpent, but it can also be translated as “Precious Twin.” This deity was related to a number of elements including maize, the good wind that brings rain, the creation of human beings, and the development of civilization. One earth-related god among the ancients was Tonantzin (“Our Sacred Mother”), and she continues to be one of the most powerful deities among present-day Aztecs. The military conquest and ritual sacrifices were all … After the decapitation of the Aztecs, the conquistadors brought in their religion and new political structure and imposed it upon the few remaining indigenous peoples. After their hearts were extracted and given to the gods, their bodies were thrown down into the plaza. Moctezuma II was suspicious, but decided to send gifts of gold to the Spanish leader Hernan Cortes. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire, also known as the Conquest of Mexico (1519–21), was one of the primary events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.There are multiple 16th-century narratives of the events by Spanish conquerors, their indigenous allies, and the defeated Aztecs.It was not solely a contest between a small contingent of Spaniards defeating the Aztec … One of the major gods of the Aztecs at the time of the conquest was Huitzilopochtli (“Hummingbird-Left”), the god of war and sacrifice who, along with many other deities associated with warfare, is no longer worshiped by people today. Then again, it's also the source of many fascinating rumors and half-truths, thanks to repression after the Spanish conquest. 1986. When speaking Spanish, the people call the sun Jesús (Jesus), providing an example of how ancient ideas are combined with Spanish sacred figures in the contemporary religion. The Aztecs decided it was time for the Spanish to leave. “Water and the Sacred in Mesoamerica.” In History of Water and Civilization, vol. Their adoption of the rapidly-spreading Spanish language would be symptomatic of the loss of their culture and land (one of the richest in America) at the hands of the Spanish … Cortés men leveled the city and captured Cuauhtemoc, the Aztec emperor. Earth gods under many different names and forms were important deities for the ancient Aztecs. Experts give their opinions on the Spanish Conquest, Visit the only royal chocolate kitchen in Britain. The two in the middle are dressed in the traditional costume worn by adult men. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 18: Close-up of paper images of seed spirits. The Codex Borbonicus, written after the Spanish conquest, is a 37 page document split into … Many people living in Aztec villages today venerate spirits of the seeds and, not surprisingly considering its importance in the diet, maize seeds are usually considered to be the most important. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 3: Boy standing before his thatch-roofed house in contemporary Aztec village. The Spanish conquest was devastating to the Aztec people.By 1680, 94% of the Aztec … The man on the left in traditional costume is standing behind his granddaughter. Many Spanish priests also studied the Aztecs during the years immediately following the Conquest, and wrote manuscripts known as codices. Much of it covers the period within a few decades after the conquest, and it is uncertain how much change had occurred because of the introduction of Spanish culture. Home talk among the Aztecs revolved around anything but blood... Forerunners of recorded music from ancient Mexico? He became fascinated with tales of Christopher Columbus' New World explorations. Among contemporary Aztecs, there are many terrifying spirits who threaten human beings and who trace directly back to their ancient ancestors. This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. The Spanish Conquest and the Maya collapse. In 1st Jan, 1714, the Spanish king ordered the people of … (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 7: Family poses for photograph outside of their house. Cortes’s army besieged Tenochtitlan for 93 days. It is important to remember that the Spaniards and literate Aztecs who chronicled the ancient civilization wrote about people in the cities. Pre-Columbian civilizations - Pre-Columbian civilizations - Aztec culture to the time of the Spanish conquest: At the time of the Spanish conquest the dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec. The Broken Spears of Miguel León Portilla, describes the Spanish conquest of Mexico and the struggle of the Aztecs to protect their cultural space in those times. When speaking Spanish, the people call the sun Jesús (Jesus), providing an example of how ancient ideas are combined with Spanish sacred figures in the contemporary religion. were defined in both Aztec and Spanish traditions. There was sporadic fighting for decades to come, but in effect, the conquest was a done … Lowell Dunham, trans. People say that when angered he sends violent storms that can destroy the maize crop. Good winds bring the life-giving rain, while dangerous bad winds cause disease among people. Many of the remaining gods continue to be venerated but they may in fact be blends of different Aztec deities, or ancient gods combined with sacred figures from Spanish Catholicism. The Aztecs: People of the Sun. Many contemporary Aztecs continue to worship and make offerings to the ancient earth gods that they address as “Grandfather” and “Grandmother” [see photographs 14-15]. Water and Humanity: Historical Overview, Yoshinori Yasuda and Vernon Scarborough, volume eds. The ancient Aztec city of Tenochtitlan is the source of a flood of fascinating history. The leafy arch on the right has been constructed over a table representing the earth’s surface. For the contemporary Aztecs, Sahua (“San Juan” or “Saint John the Baptist”) has replaced Tlaloc. Today, this god is sometimes simply called Totiotsij (“Our Honored God”) or in Spanish Dios (“God”). A kind of hag, called a tsitsimitl, is a fearsome female monster who may devour human beings. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 8: Boys playing marbles beside their houses. “Religion in Pre-Hispanic Central Mexico.” In Handbook of Middle American Indians, vol. The supreme leader of Mictlan in ancient times was Mictlantecuhtli (“Lord of the Place of the Dead”) who finds his contemporary counterpart in the figure of Miquilistli (“Death”) represented in cut paper as a human skeleton. In some cases they have remained remarkably intact while in others they have been combined with other pre-Hispanic deities or with sacred Christian figures brought to Mexico by the Spaniards. The arch represents the celestial realm, decorated with pinwheels representing stars. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 9: Contemporary Aztec ritual dedicated to the sun. We can say that, under pressure from Spanish missionaries and political authorities, some of them have disappeared along with the ancient cities and temples where they were venerated. There are many mixed feelings about the impact of the Spaniards in the new world. The Aztec empire was a wealthy and a well-organized society. They are dangerous to human health and well-being and the pair must be placated in curing rituals. (Click on image to enlarge). Robert Wauchope, gen. ed. This is the true story of the ancient Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 6: Girls standing near their village schoolhouse. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press.• Gómez Martínez, Arturo. The Aztec creator high god was Ometeotl (“Two-God”), whose wife was called Omecihuatl (“Two-Lady”). The idea of malevolent, disease-causing winds is undoubtedly pre-Hispanic in origin. The location of this valley and lake of destination is clear—it is the heart of modern Mexico City—but little can be known … The paper figure is dressed in a greencloth costume and has hair made from braided ribbons. This fact is not surprising because the Aztecs were farming people and so the fertility of the earth is one of their key concerns. In sum, what can we conclude about the fate of the Aztec gods? It was the beginning of colonization through the Spanish. According to legend, the various groups who were to become the Aztecs arrived from the north into the Anahuac Valley around Lake Texcoco. Cortes sent his first shipment of Aztec gold back to Spain in 1520, and from that moment, the gold rush was on. Aztec culture is generally grouped with the cultural complex known as the nahuas,because of the common language they shared. The Spanish were secretly glad to leave. First, killing thousands of people, whether you or your neighbours, simply can't be good for a society. For further reading:-• Caso, Alfonso. Most people think of the Aztecs as the people who created the magnificent civilization in Mexico that was brought down by the Spaniards and their Native American allies in the early 1500s. 2002. Mexico changed forever Aug. 13, 1521 -- the day Spanish explorer Hernando Cortez conquered Tenochtitlan, the capital of the Aztec empire and site of present-day Mexico City. It Sparked a Wave of Conquests . It seems likely that the god was created by Aztec priests in the cities out of many smaller gods that existed in the villages during the pre-Hispanic period. 7, Fekri A. Hassan, editor-in-chief. For a comprehensive overview of the Aztec Empire, including its military, religion, and agriculture, click here. Because both societies maintained an oral history, pre­ colonial records exist only as recorded by non-natives after the arrival of Europeans. The Aztecs under Spanish rule were not allowed to practice their old religion and were expected, under penalty of law, to adopt the dominant Spanish Catholic religion. It is from the Florentine Codex, a 12-volume encyclopedic work that documented culture, religious practices, economics, natural history and the Spanish conquest. General studies focusing on the Aztecs after the conquest have gone through a clear evolution. They did not want to kill them because they might be gods after all, but the Aztecs wanted them to move along. These codices discussed Aztec history, religion, natural history, warfare, political affairs, and the events following the Conquest. Aftermath of the Conquest of the Aztec Empire . Tezcatlipoca does not exist in his ancient form among today’s Aztecs but there is evidence that, at least in some villages, he has been combined with another pre-Hispanic figure named Tlacatecolotl (“Owl-Man”). (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 4: Contemporary Aztec woman seated inside her house embroidering a blouse with her daughter looking on. It was created in the 16th century by Franciscan friar Bernardino de Sahagun and a group of … In 1st Jan, 1519, Hernan Cortes tried to conquer the Aztec empire with 500 men. Religious thought sug- gested the meaning of life, and religious functionaries regulated conduct. Water itself was the domain of a goddess called Chalchiuhtlicue (“Jade-Her Skirt”). There are many myths told about this pair and they are associated with bringing maize to human beings and to fighting off malevolent forces that threaten civilization. Among the contemporary Aztecs in the Huasteca region of Mexico, the maize spirit is called Seven-Flower and he has a twin sister called Five-Flower. Who knows how it would have been different if these peo… These codices held the history of the great Aztec empire and included minute details of community life, important events, religion, and biographies. Laid on paper “beds” are colorful images of disease-causing wind spirits. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 5: Boys sitting in front of their village schoolhouse. After the Spanish Conquest, many Spanish priests and friars learned enough of the Aztec’s language to talk with Aztec survivors of the battles and diseases. The loss of people in a loss that can't be calculated. Beliefs in these spirit entities can be traced to the ancient Aztecs. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 17: Women ritual participants dress paper images of the maize spirit before placing them on the altar to receive offerings. In 1st Jan, 1600, two diseases, smallpox and typhus, spread all over Mexico. The sun was sacred to the ancient Aztecs, and over the years they simply combined this idea with the new sacred figure of Jesus brought by the Europeans. Battle of Tenochtitlan (May 22–August 13, 1521), military engagement between the Aztecs and a coalition of Spanish and indigenous combatants commanded by Hernan Cortes. Most assume that the Aztecs as a people ceased to exist following the conquest. This article is part of our larger resource on Aztec civilization. Traditional Papermaking and Paper Cult Figures of Mexico. Others follow traditions that are firmly rooted in the ancient Aztec past and hold beliefs in the same gods worshiped by their ancestors. The tetlachihuijquetl is a sorcerer who performs rituals to send disease and death to unsuspecting victims. Archaeology of Northern Mesoamerica, part 1. 1971. 10. México, D.F. Interesting Facts about the Spanish Conquest of the Aztecs Cortés became worried that some of his crew would steal his ships and desert him so he sunk his fleet before marching to Tenochtitlan. Superior weaponry and a devastating smallpox outbreak enabled the Spanish to conquer the city. The field reached its apogee with the publication of Gibson 1991 (originally published in 1964), a critical study, based on meticulous research in Mexico and Spain. One Minute History - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCQNIJBgSm5lg0mGTGn19EIQ The sun was sacred to the ancient Aztecs, and over the years they simply combined this idea with the new sacred figure of Jesus brought by the Europeans. The great temple at Tenochtitlán today, where temples to the gods Huitzilopochtli and Tlaloc stood To summarize. They have rubber sleeves and as they move through the sky, they strike their walking sticks causing thunder and lightning [see photographs 10-13]. Little did the residents of the massive Inca empire know that they would soon be learning Spanish in Peru. From archaeological and various historical documents, such as Spanish Chronicles and codices written by friars, Indians and other … It was merely a new European society founded upon the skeleton of the former empire. In general, the conquest displayed the impact of European exploration on the New World and the outcomes of the Age of Exploration.At the time of contact both the Aztec and the Spanish … (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 12: Participants dance before an altar dedicated to crop fertility deities. They neglected to document village life and religious traditions in smaller communities. Once again, we can see that an ancient Aztec deity, combined with European religious ideas, continues to be worshiped by fervent followers in a new form [see photograph 16]. Natives In The Americas During And After The Spanish Conquest The purpose of this paper is to compare two articles concerning the natives in the Americas during and after the Spanish conquest. However, Aztec villagers must have shared many features of their culture with people in the cities, and so we can assume that the gods worshiped in the rural areas must have been similar to those worshiped in urban centers. The transformed sorcerer, or nahualli mentioned above, flies about at night and sucks the blood from unsuspecting victims while they sleep. There are between 1.5 and 2 million people today who continue to speak Nahuatl, the Aztec language, and many are directly descended from the Aztecs themselves. There are many more gods that anthropologists have documented among people today that are not mentioned here, including gods of the moon, stars, comets, crops, mountains, caves, clouds, fire, house, hearth, year, earth’s surface, and hummingbirds. Ometotiotsij may be translated as “Two-Our Honored God,” but the name can also be interpreted as “Lord and Lady of the Duality.” The name and beliefs surrounding this sacred being reveal that it is a direct descendant of the ancient deity. After the Spanish conquest, agricultural farming increased to trade agricultural goods with other colonies. In contemporary Aztec villages, this deity still exists in its original, but fragmentary, form. Aztec people valued trade in the economy to stimulate the economy. There was a strong emphasis on the worship of Huitzilopochtli. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 13: Participants construct an altar dedicated to rain spirits part way up a perilously steep sacred mountain. Among contemporary Aztecs, Tlacatecolotl and his wife Tlacatecolotl Sihuatl (“Owl-Man Woman”) are frightening creatures who sometimes lead the souls of the dead in Mictlan (“Place of the Dead”) [see photographs 20-21]. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. For some time, they had been wondering how to escape alive. Within two years, the Spanish invaders had taken down the most powerful city-state in Mesoamerica, and the implications were not lost on the remaining city-states in the region. Some Aztec institutions, such as the military orders, were immediately abolished by the Spaniards; and the sources, therefore. Hence, the information contained in said documents reflects a Western … The woman on the right holds a dressed paper image of Water Dweller while the two in the middle hold images of Grandfather and Grandmother, important earth deities. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 14: Close-up of dressed paper images of Grandfather and Grandmother, the sacred aspects of the earth. The enelosed thesis examines the changes Inca and Aztec religion underwent as a result of Spanish colonization. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 19: (L) Chicken blood is sprinkled on paper images of spirits associated with crop fertility and growth. Ancient Aztec religion was focused on how the gods, humans and nature were interconnected. (R) A curer chants over a display of disease-causing wind spirits and underworld figures as part of a ritual to rid a patient of disease. 395-446. They documented the lineage of Aztec royalty, agrarian cycles, religious ceremonies and the Aztec gods, among other topics. Like an Aztec-Bible, this book recorded the myths and origins of gods, detailed their rituals, and gave some general advice about marriage. These latter are called malos aires (“bad airs”) in Spanish, and each of the many types of wind spirits is called ejecatl in the modern Nahuatl spelling. He sends his dwarf-like assistants called Pilhuehuentsitsij (“Little Old Ones”), the equivalent of the Tlaloque, to carry water to caves at the peaks of a sacred mountains. From there, Apanchanej sprinkles the water on the fields in the form of rain. Corn is Our Blood: Culture and Ethnic Identity in a Contemporary Aztec Indian Village. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Corn is Our Blood: Culture and Ethnic Identity in a Contemporary Aztec Indian Village. Were Aztec laments mere cries of anguish? The book is structured under three main events: the resources that Miguel Portilla used to describe this town and their culture, the resistance of the Aztecs and the global reaction after the heralded Spanish conquest. In 1st Apr, 1519, Hernan Cortes started conquering. From them, the Spanish learned that many of the sacrificial victims were friends of the Royal House, or high-ranking nobility and priests. Apparently it is Saint John the Baptist’s association with water in Christian belief that has led the contemporary Aztecs to see him as equivalent to the ancient Tlaloc. The image to the right depicts the smallpox epidemic. Which feathers went into making headdresses? Wind spirits are found widely throughout Mexico, often divided into good and bad varieties. Tlahuelilo (“Wrath”), portrayed today in cut-paper images as a fearsome figure with the tail of an animal, stalks all those who fail to keep their tempers in check. This is a wonderful question that is not easy to answer briefly. Aztec spies reported that these men were called Spaniards. The literature, both published and unpublished, of the 16th century is enormous and takes in all aspects of Aztec culture. We can also say that a significant number of them live on and continue to be worshiped by people today. General Studies. The Aztecs had to be indoors every day by 6 pm! (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 10: Contemporary Aztec altar constructed as part of a pilgrimage to a sacred mountain. Some have lost their Aztec beliefs and practice forms of Catholicism or Protestantism that are very similar to religions practiced in Europe or North America. The result is that we know little about the people who lived at the edges of the Aztec empire and even less about their gods and rituals. Dangerous ejecatl wind spirits mentioned above in connection with Quetzalcoatl, are believed by contemporary Aztecs to be the wandering spirts of people who died premature or particularly unpleasant deaths. A key god among the ancient Aztecs was the all-powerful, ever-changing, and mysterious Tezcatlipoca (“Mirror-Smoking”). After Cortes conquered the Aztecs, the native codices were seen as a threat by the Spanish Catholic priests who wanted the people to accept Spanish rule and forget their … Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The sun was also an important god for the Aztecs who they called Tonatiuh (“Sun”), and it continues to be worshiped by the contemporary Aztecs under the name variation Tonatij (“Sun”) [see photograph 9]. The Spaniards camped at what is now Veracruz. Thousands of adventurous young Europeans - not only Spanish - heard tales of the great riches of the Aztec … The offerings are dedicated to various deities to promote crop fertility. The gold and other Aztec gifts only made the Spaniards want more of the new world riches. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 16: Dancers with head dresses dance during the winter solstice ritual dedicated to the earth mother Tonantsij, the Virgin of Guadalupe. Another significant god for the ancients was Ehecatl-Quetzalcoatl (“Wind-Quetzal Feathered Serpent”). 1958. They are truly precious twins. Between 1519 and 1521, Spanish conquistadors, led by Hernán Cortés, overthrew the Aztec Empire.This event is called the Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire.Cortés helped old enemies of the Aztecs defeat them in one of the most important events in the Spanish colonization of the Americas.. Most contemporary Aztec communities fall somewhere between these two extremes of religious belief and practice. In poetry weeping and singing both generated noise... Aztec women painted their faces a beautiful yellow, Personified knives dressed as Mexica gods, ‘Do you know the names of all the Aztec gods?’, What happened to the Aztec gods after the Conquest? Aztecs today know her as Tonantsij and they celebrate her feast day on the 12th of December. The maize spirit is a modern form of Quetzalcoatl that lives in the minds and religious beliefs of the Aztecs today [see photographs 17-19]. The conquest destroyed cities but left most rural communities intact and many small villages continue to be inhabited by Aztecs to the present day [see photographs 1-8]. The house is built on stones to keep out rainwater, and smoke from the cooking fires inside escapes under the edge of the roof. Today, Aztecs in northern Veracruz refer to Chalchiutlicue as Apanchanej (“Water Dweller”). All photos courtesy of and © Alan R. Sandstrom and Pamela Effrein Sandstrom, This article was uploaded to the Mexicolore website on Feb 21st 2010, Tlaneltokilli: La espiritualidad de los nahuas chicontepecanos. The Spanish Conquest impacted the Aztec society’s beliefs and way of life. Ultimately, there was no Aztec society left after 1521. Help support true facts by becoming a member. (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 15: Close-up of paper images of Grandfather and Grandmother earth spirits without their cloth costumes. Aztecs and Spaniards alike possessed a clearly defined cultural framework within which they oriented themselves to nature, themselves, and the uni- 526 But this is not the case. (1), Toci - an aspect of the Great Mother Earth Goddess, Pic 1: Contemporary Aztec village showing houses of extended family (Click on image to enlarge), Pic 2: Contemporary Aztec thatch-roofed house. The Conquest of the Inca Empire. It was an empire that people from Europe had never seen before. The Spanish conquest of the Aztec Empire is not only one of the most significant events in the early exploration and conquest of the Americas, but also one of the most significant events in world history. This description is based primarily on written documents from the 16th century but also includes some archaeological data. 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Pic 9: contemporary Aztec Indian village firewood for the ancient Aztecs by the Spaniards and literate Aztecs who the... That they would soon be learning Spanish in Peru the family clothing is hanging against the house the. Aztec villages, this deity still exists in its original, but the Aztecs after the conquest. History of water and civilization, vol written documents from the north into the Anahuac Valley Lake... Of people, whether you or your neighbours, simply ca n't calculated. Lives at the time of the Gulf of Mexico god was Ometeotl ( “ Two-God ” ) replaced. Based primarily on written documents from the 16th century is enormous and takes in all of... Enabled the Spanish conquest the dominant people of Meso-America were the Aztec empire, including its military, religion natural... Colorful images of seed spirits the domain of a pilgrimage to a Sacred.... From Europe had never seen before and ritual sacrifices were all … the conquest of the empire...