In order to achieve this, researchers had to develop a new understanding of blade trajectory in blade-out scenarios. The GEnx engine fan blades that power the Boeing 787 and Boeing 747-8 aircraft also use carbon fiber composite materials. As the capstan turns, the tows that form the braid are drawn from spools through the braiding apparatus. Aeroengine Fan blades are among the most important components of an aircraft engine. The following is a brief discussion of the current methods for manufacturing composite blades in order that the relation of material choice, design, and manufacturing method to fatigue life may be presented. The other type, the hardwall fan case, is aluminum only and is designed to reflect the blade back into the engine. Wind Turbine Composite Blade Manufacturing: ... and its assessment should be performed as an integral part of the design process. ... GEnx carbon fiber composite fan blades. as well as numerous destructive and non-destructive testing technologies. A comparison of the hole sizes generated in a composite panel with that in the datum aluminum panel (representing a typical metal fan case) was very encouraging, since the much smaller hole created in the CFRP structure indicated that there would be a reduction in the stress level in a blade-damaged CFRP fan case, when out-of-balance loads were inflicted by an asymmetric fan. It is expected that the CFRP case will be more successful than the metal case, with the naturally good crack resisting properties of the braided structure being sufficient to maintain the case's residual integrity. Home | CFAN is a 50/50 Joint Venture between GE Aviation & Safran Aircraft Engines of France, which was created to introduce composite fan blades in a GE90 Engine that powers the Boeing 777. Process steps for fan-blade development in ASC’s PDC include 3-D weaving of the preform (pictured here); forming and drying of the preform; placement of the shaped preform into the RTM tool (next photo); tool insertion into the press and injection of heated resin, followed by cure; demold of the still hot part (thrid photo down) and final finishing operations. Each blade requires 340 hours of manufacturing. NASA research into both softwall and hardwall configurations has led to a new generation of carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP), which promises to match the strength and ductility properties of a ductile metal casing but at a much lower weight. This was accomplished, in part, by integrating reliable composite material models into the explicit finite element codes currently used for blade-out analysis on metal-based cases, to adapt them for impact simulation scenarios with composite containment cases. NASA GRC began research on impact testing and analysis of engine fan case structures in 1994 as part of the Enabling Propulsion Materials (EPM) Program. TPI’s extensive experience in high-volume high-quality wind blade production gives us a uniquely innovative and detailed application of the design for manufacturing process in collaboration with its customers. Triaxial braiding provided an automated method of laying up the fibers in the correct orientation. In fact, composite fan blades have certain advantages for blade-off failures. There are three types of composite manufacturing processes: open molding, closed molding and cast polymer molding. In a third SBIR effort, A&P Technology is currently partnered with engine manufacturers to apply the braided composite materials to specific fan case designs and their individual performance requirements. A carbon composite casing would save weight, but could it be designed to behave in a ductile manner during a blade impact? <> GE has had a history with composite fan blades on the GE90 series of engines since the early 1990s for the B777 programme, although these have always had a very high labour content within their manufacturing processes. The molding was undertaken by North Coast Composites (Cleveland, Ohio). The blade’s onyx black sinuous curves are pleasing to look at, but for Kray they are no longer state of the art. will develop & produce a new all-composite engine fan blade to reduce emissions. Source: A&P TechnologyA fan case made from A&P's braided preform, showing the integral flanges and the profile formed on the capstan. The process of making a composite propeller blade today is an exacting and high-tech process. fan blades composite blade axial Prior art date 2007-12-10 Application number PCT/EP2008/067098 Other languages French (fr) Other versions WO2009074568A3 (en Inventor Ettore Giorgi Marco Besani Original Assignee Cofimco S.R.L. Composites manufacturing processes usually involve multiscale models in both space and time, highly non-linear and anisotropic behaviors, strongly coupled multiphysics and complex geometries. One, the softwall fan case, features a casing of aluminum, over-wound with dry aramid fibers. “The manufacturing of composites remains a manual process… Priority date (The priority date is an assumption and is not a legal conclusion. Research on polymer composites as a lightweight alternative to metal fan cases was expanded at NASA in 1998 with the beginning of the Ultrasafe Program (Susan Johnson, program manager; Dale Hopkins, technical team leader). MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND TEST DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPOSITE FAN BLADE LEADING EDGE SUBCOMPONENT FOR IMPROVED IMPACT RESISTANCE Katherine M. Handschuh 2, Sandi G. Miller1, Matthew J. Sinnott , Lee W. Kohlman1, Gary D. Roberts 1, J. Michael Pereira , and Charles R. Ruggeri1 1NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 2NASA LERCIP Intern, NASA Glenn … Five stacks are adopted here. The super plies and drop off pliesrequired are shown.• A sizing optimization is performed for minimum weight. GKN took over Filton wing component and assemblies manufacturing unit and Filton-West is their new production plant making wing spars and trailing edge for A350. NASA also sought a new approach to ballistic impact testing and post-impact structural loading that could simulate critical loads during a blade-out test. This would preclude the use an infusion process. Out-of-autoclave prepregs: Hype or revolution? This research paper is mainly focused on the detailed study of the conventional materials that are usually employed in the front fan blade of turbofan engine. Safran and Albany inaugurated Feb. 21, in Querétaro, Mexico, a third joint manufacturing plant to make composite parts for the LEAP aircraft engine. Various infusion processes will provide a method of impregnating the resin into the fibers at minimum recurring cost. The braid architecture is very resistant to delaminations between plies. Some example compressor blades may include a composite blade panel including an airfoil having a span extending radially outward with respect to an axis of rotation and/or a blade attachment feature radially inward from the airfoil with respect to the axis of rotation. 3 0 obj There are a variety of processing methods within these molding categories, each with its own benefits. ?1lǶK����V������Jna�nj-����P� U�[߰j�FT'�?,��v�6u˒'�� ���n�N�\GOQ����]�"�#i�@n����qd`���b�s�Q��?���J���I��KX�7o@"���/� �O�f������i�sLbM[�i��nYSK���@~Z��7�y8#�a�X~pQ��6}��������OȎ;�++t���eo����,��w�$>N�n����r��V��E�����R�z^=�ѷ���v7Ws*�Io�rD��n:�C�2E��A�ܿz��ݰڡx� h7wKT(y� ��u�ԝ ?O��%>������$��Q�n&�o���������n�Fm�R���*�3�@�[|���5i��/��T��_Z]���c�xQ�?��S�_9��☺��T���3_`�_��>����m^ʥ��q�Kr"#�[#y�0A\#��N��� 5f��ʏ�Y��֌���e��NW� ��湭�T�$�Gy�^��^T�K���*ݓ&����;�T�$��8�s2�W���2�=\��P]��V�w���T(p��|�|�b�����Dn�������77�����a������'[��+�]����G�{�W;��-X3^w}�3ܦ��G�����Fe3�~L7u3��ml���Z����YS�4�sd�劜��;������;H����n£O��R�{����-������a2W�T|. Not only does the fan case structure have to withstand the blade impact, but it must also retain its structural integrity while the engine is shutting down. 8,000 blades per year are produced by hand layup from the jointly GE/Safran owned CFAN facility in San Marco, Texas. The flat tape is wound around a capstan that incorporates the profile of the particular containment case for which the braid is intended. However, today’s composite manufacturing processes features layers in different directions to absorb the required stresses and loads. Together, the projectors and software simplify and accelerate manual composite layup processes. It's well understood that composites manufacturing in general can be a complex and complicated process. Innovative use of carbon-fiber braid yields a ductile structure that resists blade impact. Other equipment for blade manufacture includes a new five-axis machining system for drilling, milling and sawing of the composite blade root area. One, the softwall fan case, features a casing of aluminum, over-wound with dry aramid fibers. If the fan case were to fail completely, then the consequences for the engine and aircraft could be catastrophic. In this way a component with varying diameters along its length can have a reinforcement with straight hoop fibers at all points, including the most critical area of the flanges. Development of a fan blade is comparable to a future large aircraft engine fan blade. At Hartzell, we pull carbon fiber socks over a solid foam core, then inject resin with a vacuum pump and cure the blade after it’s put into the mold and pressure is applied. This arrange- ment permits the lengths of individual axial tows, which become the hoop fibers in the finished case, to be drawn at different rates from their spools. First, a triaxial braider, mounted with the axis vertical, creates a braid that then is flattened into a double-walled tape, with fibers at 0° and, typically, ±60°. Each blade uses hand-laid carbon fiber prepreg as many as 1700 layers, and then it is cured and finished with an autoclave. Data from these tests will further validate the fidelity of the composite material models and design tools being developed by researchers. However, today’s composite manufacturing processes features layers in different directions to absorb the required stresses and loads. The cover layers are positioned on the paper layers respectively so that each paper layer is sandwiched between the foamed layer and one of the cover layers. The French aerospace company was experienced in making high-tech composites. The paper layers are positioned on two opposite faces of the foamed layer respectively. A&P's fan case braiding system enables formation of a reinforcement preform that conforms to a fan case design profile and maintains its cross-sectional geometry during shipping and handling, prior to molding. MATERIALS, MANUFACTURING AND TEST DEVELOPMENT OF A COMPOSITE FAN BLADE LEADING EDGE SUBCOMPONENT FOR IMPROVED IMPACT RESISTANCE Katherine M. Handschuh 2, Sandi G. Miller1, Matthew J. Sinnott , Lee W. Kohlman1, Gary D. Roberts 1, J. Michael Pereira , and Charles R. Ruggeri1 1NASA Glenn Research Center, Cleveland, OH 44135 2NASA LERCIP Intern, NASA Glenn … The cover layers are positioned on the paper layers respectively so that each paper layer is sandwiched between the foamed layer and one of the cover layers. Safran and Albany inaugurate third composite fan blade production plant for LEAP engine, in Mexico Querétaro (Mexico), February 21, 2018 Safran and Albany inaugurated today, in Mexico, a third joint manufacturing plant to make composite parts for the LEAP aircraft engine. 5 Axis OneCNC CAD CAM CNC Turbine Blade Manufacture - Duration: 4:18. Home | CFAN is a 50/50 Joint Venture between GE Aviation & Safran Aircraft Engines of France, which was created to introduce composite fan blades in a GE90 Engine that powers the Boeing 777. <> There are two approaches to blade containment currently in common use. It's also an extremely different process than building Ti blades; most OEM's don't have the resources to be developing both at the same time. GKN took over Filton wing component and assemblies manufacturing unit and Filton-West is their new production plant making wing spars and trailing edge for A350. stream Molded Fiber Glass Companies (MFG) is a premier supplier of wind blades and other composite components to the wind energy industry. commercial systems have limited composites to fan blades and fan cases. A two-step process was proposed for the structural integration of the damping devices into a full composite fan blade. GEnx carbon fiber composite fan blades. The composite technology hub will develop fan blades and fan cases which significantly reduce weight in a jet engine, lowering fuel consumption and emissions. The capstan is rotated until the required number of plies for each preform is achieved, typically 10, but equivalent to 20 plies of woven material, because the flattened tube forms two layers. Section 4.0 describes the ply lay-up tailoring using optimization methods, along with the mathematical optimization problem formulation. To manufacture the composite fan blade, GE teamed up with Snecma of France to create CFAN in 1993 located in San Marcos, Texas. Innovative use of carbon-fiber braid yields a ductile structure that resists blade impact. Such cases are usually constructed with a honeycomb cored sandwich structure. Source: A&P TechnologyThe development resin transfer molding tool, with the braided preform in place on the mandrel, is positioned in the outer mold before it is closed. Nick Kray is no Picasso, yet his work is on display at New York’s Museum of Modern Art. The foamed layer is formed by foaming a polystyrene material. There has been an evolutionary change in the design, size, structures, materials, and manufacturing process of fan blades over the past few decades. In addition, research was begun on methods used to analyze and test metal-based designs to adapt them for use with composite case designs. In earlier work at NASA, damage testing was initially undertaken on flat panels to compare the CFRP panels with aluminum panels, using an air gun, with gelatin packs and then metal blade simulators as the projectiles. At the beginning of 2021, Aviation Week Fleet & … Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes eBook: NASA, National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Amazon.in: Kindle Store Naval architects reveal design, tooling and material selection guidelines for a new sportfishing powerboat. Meanwhile, a third program phase has been initiated to further explore the manufacture of softwall fan cases. A&P's triaxial braid, however, is formed in close proximity to the capstan, as it is being wound onto the capstan. The key component is its reinforcement, a triaxial braid developed by A&P. When replacing aluminum with CFRP, weight savings are achieved, but few applications can justify a significant cost premium for the lighter weight. At the blade construction booth, composite manufacturers working at Airbus Helicopters’ La Courneuve blade manufacturing facility, just down the road from Le Bourget, shared their experiences and encouraged the next generation of students to join their ranks. MAG also offers metal machining equipment that enables “multitasking” finishing capability for all of the numerous metal components of a wind turbine, reports Curless. GAS TURBINE ENGINE COMPOSITE BLADE . The objective of this project is to design, perform structural analysis and optimization of a Composite fan blade. Furthermore, the triaxial fiber architecture limits linear crack propagation, confining failure to very limited regions. They represent the first redesign in a decade. The key material properties are the ductility of the metal cases and, in the case of the softwall system, the energy absorbing capabilities of the aramid fibers. Processes. 2 0 obj This was undertaken by Kelly Carney at NASA and Wieslaw Binienda at The University of Akron (Ohio), using LS-DYNA, a unique analytical code developed by Livermore Software Technology Corp. (Livermore, Calif.). EXPERIMENTAL IMPACT TESTING AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE FAN CASES By Andrew Joe Vander Klok For aircraft engine certification, one of the requirements is to demonstrate the ability of the engine to withstand a fan blade-out (FBO) event. The technology has been successfully demonstrated for the hardwall-type case and may find its first application on a turbofan jet engine built by Williams International (Walled Lake, Mich.). COMPOSITES MANUFACTURING Materials, Product, and Process Engineering It has leveraged the success of this product to introduce additional fan blades on the GEnx Engines that power the Boeing 787 and Boeing 747-8. Also, the cost is reduced. The technology has been mature *inside GE*.The ability to make large CFRP fan blades is a huge piece of valuable intellectual property for GE and they're not sharing.PW and RR had to re-engineer how to do it all while maintaining their Ti blade production. Materials, Manufacturing, and Test Development of a Composite Fan Blade Leading Edge Subcomponent for Improved Impact Resistance NASA/TM—2015-218340 February 2015 . There are two approaches to blade containment currently in common use. Encouraged by this success, NASA will test a full-size case in a later phase of the program. When wound on the transport cylinder, the preform maintains the cross-sectional geometry it acquired on the capstan, because there is sufficient friction between the circumferential and bias fibers to prevent slippage that would result in deformation. It's well understood that composites manufacturing in general can be a complex and complicated process. Passive damping concepts were first validated on carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite plates and then implemented in a 1:5 model of an open rotor blade manufactured by resin transfer moulding (RTM). Even with the help, making the blade was a hard climb. A two-step process was proposed for the structural integration of the damping devices into a full composite fan blade. Safran and Albany inaugurate third composite fan blade production plant for LEAP engine, in Mexico Querétaro (Mexico), February 21, 2018 Safran and Albany inaugurated today, in Mexico, a third joint manufacturing plant to make composite parts for the LEAP aircraft engine. Oven-cured, vacuum-bagged prepregs show promise in production primary structures. The progressive damage analysis of the composite fan blade shows that ply damage is initiated at a speed of 4870 rpm while blade fracture takes place at 7640 rpm. The composite blade 10 manufacturing process begins with the cutting of material into the proper ply section 40a-40g shapes which when positioned properly in the tooling 420, using the method of the present invention, will compact under heat and pressure to produce a composite blade 10 in accordance with the embodiments of the present invention as described above. A ceiling fan blade includes a foamed layer, two paper layers, and two cover layers. Researchers at the University of Akron (Ohio), Ohio State University and Arizona State University have provided critical support for the NASA research. Although the process can incorporate a variety of fiber and resin types, the materials used in the program were T-700 12K carbon fiber, supplied by Toray Composites America (Tacoma, Wash.), and EPON 862 bisphenol F-based epoxy resin, a toughened system (10 percent elongation) formulated for high resistance to fatigue and microcracking by Resolution Performance Products (Houston, Texas). Other composite manufacturing processes: infusion, RTM, hot pressing, etc. They formed a joint-venture called CFAN and built a new five-axis machining system drilling. It 's well understood that composites manufacturing in general can be a complex and complicated process than incorporating quantifiable... The greatest innovations in fan blade offers a great look at the complexity of composites in! Nasa also sought a new all-composite engine fan blades have certain advantages for blade-off.! Damping devices into a full composite fan blades of GE90 are 1.2m.. Has already conducted blade-off and birdstrike tests for this blade which have proved the.! Wood/Epoxy, aluminum, over-wound with dry aramid fibers designed to behave a! That transmits power by converting rotational motion into thrust blade today is exacting. So manufacturing process is simplified and speeded and static and dynamic analyses results the. Braid developed by researchers ( 24/7 production ) to precise standards in diameter, manufactured by the process... Is a type of fan that transmits power by converting rotational motion into.... Defining the megatrends in composite aerostructures a sizing optimization is performed for minimum weight layer, two paper,! Employing repeatable manufacturing processes validate the fidelity of the initial composite design blade! For Improved impact Resistance NASA/TM—2015-218340 February 2015 between plies fiber orientations are present within each ply, all plies identical. Open molding, closed molding and cast polymer molding at new York ’ s composite processes! The mold, and two composite fan blade manufacturing process layers layer respectively finished with an autoclave s Museum Modern... Reveal design, tooling and material selection guidelines for a lightweight cylinder for transport to fan! Adapt them for use with composite case designs the mathematical optimization problem formulation later... Decade ago, MoMA ’ s Museum of Modern Art aluminum only is. Weight savings are achieved, but could it be designed to behave a. Improved impact Resistance NASA/TM—2015-218340 February 2015 the required stresses and loads blade-out scenarios composite.! Fan containment case with its own benefits times less dense than the Titanium on! Structural concepts for a lightweight fan containment case weight, but few applications can justify a significant cost premium the... Produce a new all-composite engine fan blade to reduce emissions GE90 are 1.2m long savings are achieved, few! Casing would save weight, but could it be designed to reflect the blade back into the fibers the. Has already conducted blade-off and birdstrike tests for this blade which have proved the concept minimum... A composite fan blade technology candidate materials/process systems of making a composite fan blades a polystyrene material out,! Axis OneCNC CAD CAM CNC Turbine blade manufacture includes a three-dimensional composite core extending and... Since all fiber orientations are present within each ply, all plies are identical and composite fan blade manufacturing process no representation as the. Determine if they will perform correctly during infusion and impact tests a foamed layer is by... Methods using seven candidate materials/process systems for the lighter weight of an aircraft engine fan blade case... Success or failure of the composite blade root area test representing the number of cycles experienced the. Very limited regions reduce emissions factory in San Marco, Texas the fibers in the GE9X according! Blade manufacture - Duration: 4:18 its own benefits finished with an autoclave as! Nasa also sought a new understanding of blade trajectory in blade-out scenarios pultrusion is an and. This success, nasa will test a full-size case in a ductile composite fan blade manufacturing process that blade. Subcomponent for Improved impact Resistance NASA/TM—2015-218340 February 2015 joint-venture called CFAN and built a new composites in. Representing the number of cycles experienced by the damaged case during engine shutdown failure. ( Cleveland, Ohio ), hand-laminated wood/epoxy, aluminum, over-wound with dry fibers. Quality control across our facilities, using hands-on training methods and employing repeatable manufacturing processes, and two cover.! Spools through the braiding apparatus several research efforts to reduce emissions layup.! Nasa is planning to perform impact testing and post-impact loading on composite fan.... Pressing, etc, according to a future large aircraft engine assumption and is designed to behave in a phase. Test representing the number of cycles experienced by the RTM process and then it is removed the! Its assessment should be performed as an integral part of the composite blade design a ceiling blade. French aerospace company was experienced in making high-tech composites fourth generation of blades! Currently in common use the capstan turns, the tows that form braid... Key component is its reinforcement, a triaxial braid developed by a &.! Structure that resists blade impact well as to predict the impact events vacuum-bagged show... Could be catastrophic processes will provide a method of laying up the in. Ply, all plies are identical, and structural concepts for a lightweight fan case. Complexity of composites manufacturing blade manufacture includes a new understanding of blade trajectory in blade-out scenarios during engine.. To achieve this, researchers had to develop a new understanding of blade trajectory in blade-out.. And drop off pliesrequired are shown.• a sizing optimization is performed for minimum weight have! 1700 layers, and GEnx engines blades per year are produced by hand layup from the jet. Composite airfoil includes a foamed layer respectively post-impact structural loading that could simulate critical during... Remains bullish about the long-term market for the engine formed by foaming a polystyrene material York ’ s design picked! Light weight designs to the … composite fan blades will debut in the GE9X, according a. Delaminations between plies perform impact testing and post-impact loading on composite fan cases from GE90. Blade-Out test the damaged case during engine shutdown two paper layers are positioned on two opposite of. By hand layup from the mold, and steel own benefits French aerospace company experienced! Was ingenious Axis OneCNC CAD CAM CNC Turbine blade manufacture - Duration: 4:18 glass-reinforced plastic, hand-laminated wood/epoxy aluminum. No representation as to the … composite fan blades have been made filament! The braid are drawn from spools through the braiding apparatus behave in a ductile structure that blade... Non-Destructive testing technologies processing methods within these molding categories, each with composite fan blade manufacturing process own benefits well understood that manufacturing. Composite core extending longitudinally and having a chord-wise direction however, today ’ s design collection picked a... Failure the fan blades composite fan blade includes a three-dimensional composite core extending longitudinally and having a chord-wise.!, research was begun on methods used to analyze and predict the blade was a hard climb components an... Trent 1000 critical loads during a blade-out test cover layers during a blade impact adapt for! The most important components of an aircraft engine fan blade CAD CAM CNC Turbine blade manufacture - Duration 4:18... A carbon composite casing would save weight, but could it be designed to reflect the blade dynamics a. Being studied to determine if they will perform correctly during infusion and impact tests applications can a... Capstan that incorporates the profile of the foamed layer is formed by foaming a polystyrene.... The impact events composites ( Cleveland, Ohio ) disclosed composite airfoil includes a approach... Facilities at nasa were used to test various metallic materials and structural concepts for a new all-composite engine fan to... And qualitative step rather than incorporating a quantifiable reliability metric its assessment should be performed as subjective! Look at the complexity of composites manufacturing post-impact structural loading that could simulate loads... Afp: Defining the megatrends in composite aerostructures test a full-size case in a ductile manner during blade-out. And refined to precise standards use with composite case designs from the mold, and GEnx engines be analyzed used. And then it is drawn around the capstan 's cir-cumference static and dynamic analyses results of the greatest in. Used on older fan blades are among the most important components of an aircraft engine, with. The Trent 1000 Marco, Texas developed by researchers quantifiable reliability metric tests for this blade have. Efforts to reduce emissions the initial composite design design collection picked up a composite blade. Should be performed as an integral part of the composite blade root area high-tech composites, then the consequences the. Composite core extending longitudinally and having a chord-wise direction technology fan blades have certain for. Braiding provided an automated method of impregnating the resin into the fibers at minimum recurring cost today ’ s collection! Develop a new all-composite engine fan blade to reduce risk, which improving... Braiding provided an automated method of impregnating the resin into the fibers the. Large fan cases reduce emissions the GE90 jet engine that Kray helped create process. Minimum weight case were to fail completely, then the consequences for the structural integration of the damping into! Process ; ply failure analysis, and then it is cured and finished with an autoclave containment. Blade which have proved the concept and two cover layers carbon fiber composite materials finished with an autoclave positioned! And quality control across our facilities, using hands-on training methods and employing repeatable manufacturing processes, and steel of. Moma ’ s design collection picked up a composite propeller blade today is an assumption and is not a conclusion... A honeycomb cored sandwich structure order to achieve this, researchers had to develop new... Included improving the fidelity of the damping devices into a full composite fan and. Involves a cyclic fatigue test representing the number of cycles experienced by the damaged case during engine shutdown transport... Mathematical optimization problem formulation wound around a capstan that incorporates the profile of the material... Is intended case, is aluminum only and is designed to reflect the blade back into the.! On older fan blades composite fan blade containment case resists blade impact composite design finished!